3.1 Political parties
In the period from 1915 to 1922 Rochester had 2 mayors. From 1908 to 1921 Hiram H. Edgerton was Rochester's mayor, passing away in 1922 but solidifying himself as one of the longest serving mayors for the city. An excerpt about him in The Encyclopedia of Biography of New York describes him as "A republican in politics, he has always been loyal to the party, not through narrow partisanship, but through a strong belief that his party stands for the best interests of the country." From 1921 to 1926 Charles D. Van Zandt, another republican, served as mayor, passing away in 1926, and was the last of Rochester's popularly elected mayors.

3.2 Law and order
During the Civil War, a second generation Irishman, Col. Patrick O’Rorke, commanded the 140th New York Volunteers, composed of Rochester recruits, and saved the day at Gettysburg. He died in battle at the head of the regiment and “became a symbol of patriotic bravery in his home town” (McKelvey, 12).

Originally the head of the Department of Charities, Joseph M. Quigley was appointed as the police chief in 1908 by Mayer Edgerton. He took his job incredibly seriously and enacted orders to discourage prostitution halls and gambling dens by passing laws that made it illegal to have curtains on the windows. In 1913, Rochester hired their first police woman Nellie L. McElroy. Nellie is the tenth woman in the country to become a police officer and Rochester appointed her because police had to start patrolling dance halls and other amusement centers.

After 1900, becoming a police officer was a more selective process with in creased professionalism, selecting and promoting officers through examination against their peers. They also received greater job security and more benefits.

The United States almost went to war when Germans sank the Lusitania, killing 1198 people, 128 Americans, and three were from Rochester. April 6, 1917 the U.S., under President Woodrow Wilson, declared war on Germany. Monroe County sent 18,119 combatants into World War I, and “suffered 609 fatal casualties, 512 of them from Rochester”, (Mancini, 5).

Nearby Oklahoma Beach was a popular landing spot for rum runners, who supplied the many nearby speakeasies as well as many others in the area. This made the area into a great hub of illegal activity during the great depression.


3.3 Public Services
In the early 1900's, the Good Government Clubs improved schools, made parks, recreational facilities, and playgrounds, maintained an efficient police force, developed a fire department, and adopted fire precautions.

Rochester opened the second Red Cross Chapter and enrolled 5000 women to sew and package supplies for Rochester’s Base Hospital No. 19. In 1916, Miss Jane Delano, Director of Nursing for the American Red Cross, visited Rochester and began enrolling qualified nurses. The personnel of Hospital No. 19 trained, fund raised, and gathered supplied. “For the enlisted ME, ‘training’ consisted of classes at the local Armory in hospital ward routine, first aid and bandaging, elementary anatomy and physiology, military drill, and personal hygiene,” (Mancini, 17). The unit mobilized in 1917 but had to wait till 1918 to go to France. Rochester entertained the enlisted men and officers with dances and concerts. The unit was 1 of 5 base hospitals in Vichy, France, using Hotels as hospitals. No. 19 was meant to be used for contagious diseases, respiratory infections, and care of wounded Germans, but within nine days of arrival it abandoned the idea and became a general hospital. In the summer of 1918 the hospital had 3,500 patients and in one “twenty-four hour period in October, it admitted 822 patients. Between the middle of June and the middle of December, 1918, a total of 11,071 patients were admitted, of whom seventy-eight died, a mortality rate of .7 percent...On February 18, its personnel left for home,” (Mancini, 18). By the end of the war over 109,000 people in the county were members of the Red Cross and 58,000 in the junior ranks.

“On September 4, 1918, the city honored six thousand mothers of service men and women in a ceremony at Edgerton Park. A medal was presented to each mother...Army Air Corps aviators flying over the park during the ceremony dropped flowers from airplanes,” (Mancini, 11).

Mancini, Al, Ellen More, Dr, and Ruth Rosenberg-Naparsteck. "Rochester during World War I."
Rochester History LI.3 (1989): n. pag.
<http://www.libraryweb.org/~rochhist/v51_1989/v51i3.pdf>.
McKelvey, Blake. "Rochester in Retrospect and Prospect." Rochester History XXIII.3 (1961): n. pag.
<http://www.libraryweb.org/~rochhist/v23_1961/v23i3.pdf>.


3.4 Anarchism
While Rochester was not the largest hot spot for anarchists, it was certainly home to some. This included Emma Goldman, famed anarchist writer and activist, who lived in the city for much of her young adult life. Rochester was also the target of several raids alongside Buffalo and Utica under the Lusk Committee.

3.4.1 Emma Goldman
Raised in St. Petersburg, Russia, Goldman witnessed the brutal beating of a peasant that would sow the seeds for her future political career. Her family moved to Rochester in 1885 and she left it in 1888, staying there from age 16 to 19. She was a fan of books and dancing, an intelligent, social girl with an ever-growing interest in politics and the turmoil around her, notable the Haymarket Affair of 1886.
While her time in Rochester predates our section of history, it gives her enough time to make connections and meet people before her departure from the city.

By 1915, she would have met her life-long partner, Alexander Berkman, and the two would have attempted to assassinate Henry Clay Frick, head of the Carnegie Steel Factory in Homestead, Pennsylvania where the Homestead strike occurred. Goldman would have spoken to crowds during the Panic of 1893 telling them to "demonstrate before the palaces of the rich; demand work. If they do not give you work, demand bread. If they deny you both, take bread." and then would be brought to New York City to face trail for "inciting to riot" and jailed for a year. In 1901, Leon Czolgosz would attempt to assassinate President McKinley, claiming he was inspired by one of Goldman's speeches, and she would be arrested again under flimsy pretense. After her release, she would fade into anonymity and begin writing Mother Earth, an anarchist magazine. Here she would stay until the United States entered World War I.

She would resurface to protest the Selective Service Act of 1917, urging people not to register for the draft, seeing it as an exercise in militarist aggression. She and Berkman organized the No Conscription League of New York, publishing large amounts of literature on the topic. They would be arrested for two years when the League's offices were raided, and in 1919 would be deported to Russia in a highly questionable ruling. Goldman's citizenship was conveniently retroactively revoked when Berkman's was years before.

In Russia, they would become disillusioned with the Bolshevik Revolution they had written about with high hopes, seeing the horrors and oppression that it caused when it was actually implemented. They would protest until the cause seemed hopeless in 1921 when they would leave the country for Berlin for the next several years.